A noun names a person or thing. Words like apple, dog, team and chair are all nouns. One apple is singular. More than one is plural.

To make most nouns plural, add –s.

apple + s = apples



  • if the noun ends in –s, -ss, -x, -sh or –ch, add –es.


bus + es = buses       church + es = churches   glass + es = glasses


  • if the noun ends in a consonant + -y, change the –y to ie then add –s

baby – ie + s = babies     family – ie + s = families


  • if the noun ends in –f or –fe, change this to –ves.


half = halves       life = lives

  • if the noun ends in –o, add –es.

hero + es = heroes     tomato + es = tomatoes


* Some plurals do not add ‘-s’ so you will need to learn these.